Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Network Electrodes for the Detection of Fentanyl Citrate

Niklas Wester*, Elsi Mynttinen, Jarkko Etula, Tuomas Lilius, Eija Kalso, Bjørn F. Mikladal, Qiang Zhang, Hua Jiang, Sami Sainio, Dennis Nordlund, Esko I. Kauppinen, Tomi Laurila, Jari Koskinen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)
63 Downloads (Pure)


We prepare disposable single-walled carbon nanotube network electrodes for the detection of the potent opioid fentanyl, currently a leading cause for opioid overdose deaths in the USA. We show repeatable dry transfer of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) networks to produce robust electrodes. This process directly produces highly conductive SWCNT electrodes without the need for any further modifications required for conventional carbon electrodes. The realized electrode showed low background currents combined with spontaneous enrichment of fentanyl, resulting in a high signal-to-noise ratio. With this electrode, a detection limit of 11 nM and a linear range of 0.01-1 μM were found for fentanyl. In addition, selectivity is demonstrated in the presence of several common interferents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1203-1212
Number of pages10
JournalACS Applied Nano Materials
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 28 Feb 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • DPV
  • electrochemical sensor
  • fentanyl citrate
  • voltammetry


Dive into the research topics of 'Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Network Electrodes for the Detection of Fentanyl Citrate'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this