Simulations of Dedicated LEO-PNT Systems for Precise Point Positioning: Methodology, Parameter Analysis, and Accuracy Evaluation

Fabricio S. Prol, M. Zahidul H. Bhuiyan, Sanna Kaasalainen, E. Simona Lohan, Jaan Praks, Kaan Celikbilek, Heidi Kuusniemi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites provide the potential to overcome the current limitations in global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) due to the increased satellite velocity and signal reception power. As the whole LEO segment grows, preliminary studies and simulations have been conducted in the most recent years to identify how to develop a LEO-PNT system and add value to GNSS. To promote the development of LEO-PNT, this work presents the simulation of several key components of a dedicated LEO-PNT system. Our investigation analyzes features of the satellite constellation, orbits, on-board instruments, signal propagation effects, user measurements, and map the accuracy of the service on the ground. The analysis considers the signal propagation from both LEO and medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites and provides the expected accuracy of a ground user when certain system parameters and instruments are defined in the space mission design. All parameters and statistical distributions, which can serve to future LEO-PNT simulations and developments, are presented. For validation and demonstration, a comparison is presented to analyze the expected positioning errors for LEO satellites, and how they differ from the classic GNSS. Our investigation enables a valuable quantitative analysis of the dedicated LEO-PNT systems and provides analysis for LEO-PNT systems design optimization.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalIEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2024
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Clock
  • Delays
  • Extraterrestrial measurements
  • Global navigation satellite system
  • GNSS
  • Instruments
  • LEO
  • Low earth orbit satellites
  • navigation
  • positioning
  • precise orbit determination
  • Satellite broadcasting
  • simulation
  • Space vehicles


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