Simulation of transport in the FT-2 tokamak up to the electron scale with GENE

Salomon Janhunen*, Gabriele Merlo, Alexey Gurchenko, Evgeniy Gusakov, Frank Jenko, Timo Kiviniemi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
15 Downloads (Pure)


Prior experimental work on the FT-2 tokamak has observed electron density fluctuations at electron Larmor radius scales using the enhanced scattering (ES) diagnostic (Gusakov et al 2006 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 48 A371-6, Gurchenko and Gusakov 2010 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 52 124035). Gyrokinetic GENE simulations of conditions at the upper hybrid resonance layer probed by the ES diagnostic show the presence of the anticipated turbulence from the electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven instability in linear and nonlinear simulations. Ion-scale turbulence is responsible for majority of the transport via trapped electron modes, while impurities act to merge the spectrum of the ion and the electron scale instabilities into a continuum. The linear spectrum at electron scales is characterized by maximal growth rate at a significant ballooning angle θ 0, and at ion scales the turbulence is broad in the ballooning angle distribution. The neoclassical shearing rate obtained from GENE breaks symmetry in nonlinear simulations of ETG turbulence, which manifests itself as an asymmetric turbulence spectrum. The electron density fluctuation spectrum obtained with GENE corresponds well to the ES measurement at electron scales, as do the fluxes obtained from the ion-scale simulations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number015005
Number of pages11
JournalPlasma Physics and Controlled Fusion
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • electron temperature gradient mode
  • ballooning angle
  • drift-wave turbulence
  • gyrokinetic simulation
  • enhanced scattering
  • symmetry breaking


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