Selective laser melting raw material commoditization : impact on comparative competitiveness of additive manufacturing

Siavash H. Khajavi*, Gege Deng, Jan Holmström, Pasi Puukko, Jouni Partanen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


The paper analyses the impact of cheaper metal powder supplies on the comparative competitiveness of additive manufacturing (AM). By utilising two case studies, we compare the economic impact of an innovative titanium extraction method on Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and conventional methods of machining and casting. A switch-over analysis identifies the production quantities above which conventional manufacturing is more cost competitive than additive manufacturing. This analysis is performed for current raw material as well as cheaper raw material supply. The results illustrate the improved comparative competitiveness of SLM as the titanium supply is commoditised and more readily available in powder form. The responsiveness of the supply chain is improved as the switch-over point between SLM and conventional methods increases. Moreover, as the raw material supply chain for titanium is transformed through the use of this novel extraction method, the manufacturing supply chain is simplified.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4874-4896
Number of pages23
JournalInternational Journal of Production Research
Issue number14
Early online date17 Feb 2018
Publication statusPublished - 18 Jul 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • additive manufacturing competitiveness
  • rapid manufacturing
  • supply chain management
  • switch-over analysis
  • titanium commoditisation


Dive into the research topics of 'Selective laser melting raw material commoditization : impact on comparative competitiveness of additive manufacturing'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this