Sector and site switch-off regular patterns for energy saving in cellular networks

Tamer Beitelmal*, Sebastian S. Szyszkowicz, G. David González, Halim Yanikomeroglu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Cell switch-off (CSO) is an important approach to reducing energy consumption in cellular networks during off-peak periods. CSO addresses the research question of which cells to switch off when. Whereas online CSO, based on immediate user demands and channel states, is problematic to implement and difficult to model, off-line CSO is more practical and tractable. Furthermore, it is known that regular cell layouts generally provide the best coverage and spectral efficiency, which leads us to prefer regular static (off-line) CSO. We introduce sector-based regular CSO patterns for the first time. We organize the existing and newly introduced patterns using a systematic nomenclature; studying 26 patterns in total. We compare these patterns in terms of energy efficiency and the average number of users supported, via a combination of analysis and simulation. We also compare the performance of CSO with two benchmark algorithms. We show that the average number of users can be captured by one parameter. Moreover, we find that the distribution of the number of users is close to Gaussian, with a tractable variance. Our results demonstrate that several patterns that activate only one out of three sectors are particularly beneficial; such CSO patterns have not been studied before.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2932-2945
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Cell switch-off (CSO)
  • Green cellular networks
  • Offline CSO
  • Renewal processes
  • Sector-based CSO

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