Scrap Melting Model for Steel Converter founded on Interfacial Solid/Liquid Phenomena

Ari Kruskopf, Lauri Holappa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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The primary goal in steel converter operation is the removal of carbon from the hot metal. This is achieved by blowing oxygen into the melt. The oxidation of carbon produces a lot of heat. To avoid too high temperatures in the melt cold scrap (recycled steel) is charged into the converter. The melting rate is affected by heat and carbon mass transfer. A process model for steel converter is in development. This model is divided into several modules, which are fluid dynamics, heat- and mass-transfer, scrap melting and chemical reactions. This article focuses on the development of the scrap melting module. A numerical model for calculating temperature and carbon concentration in the melt is presented. The melt model is connected with the solid scrap model via solid/liquid interface. The interface model can take into account solidification of iron melt, melting of solidified layer, a situation without such phase changes, and scrap melting. The aim is to predict the melting rate of the scrap including the properties of the hot metal. The model is tested by calculating the melting rates for different scrap thicknesses. All of the stages in the interface model were taking place in the test calculations.
Original languageEnglish
Article number201
Number of pages7
JournalMetallurgical Research & Technology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Steel converter
  • scrap melting
  • modeling
  • heat transfer
  • mass transfer
  • numerical method


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