Scalable 3D-printable antenna array with liquid cooling for 28 GHz

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This article presents a scalable and compact 3-D-printed Vivaldi antenna array with liquid cooling for the frequency band from 24.0 to 29.5 GHz. The proposed design consists of an 8 × 8 antenna array with commercial beam-forming integrated circuits (ICs) on the antenna side of the PCB for efficient PCB area utilization that enables a high integration level. Scalable liquid cooling is integrated into the 3-D-printed antenna array. The measured temperature with water cooling during operation remains below 50°C. The simulated total active reflection coefficient (TARC) of the unit cell is lower than -9.6 dB for beam steering angles up to 57° from the broadside. The effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) of the prototypes is up to 59.7 dBm.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5067-5078
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number6
Early online date2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • 3D-printable antennas
  • Active arrays
  • Antenna arrays
  • Antennas
  • Beam steering
  • Cooling
  • Electronics cooling
  • Gratings
  • Millimeter wave antenna arrays
  • Prototypes
  • Radio frequency
  • Radiofrequency integrated circuits
  • Vivaldi antenna array


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