Review of fabrication methods of large-area transparent graphene electrodes for industry

Petri Mustonen*, David M.A. Mackenzie, Harri Lipsanen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleScientificpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)
67 Downloads (Pure)


Graphene is a two-dimensional material showing excellent properties for utilization in transparent electrodes; it has low sheet resistance, high optical transmission and is flexible. Whereas the most common transparent electrode material, tin-doped indium-oxide (ITO) is brittle, less transparent and expensive, which limit its compatibility in flexible electronics as well as in low-cost devices. Here we review two large-area fabrication methods for graphene based transparent electrodes for industry: liquid exfoliation and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD). We discuss the basic methodologies behind the technologies with an emphasis on optical and electrical properties of recent results. State-of-the-art methods for liquid exfoliation have as a figure of merit an electrical and optical conductivity ratio of 43.5, slightly over the minimum required for industry of 35, while CVD reaches as high as 419.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)91-113
Number of pages23
JournalFrontiers of Optoelectronics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2020
MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal


  • chemical vapor deposition (CVD)
  • graphene
  • liquid exfoliation
  • transparent electrodes


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