Review Article : Recommended reading list of early publications on atomic layer deposition - Outcome of the "Virtual Project on the History of ALD: Recommended reading list of early publications on atomic layer deposition - Outcome of the "Virtual Project on the History of ALD"

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleScientificpeer-review


  • Esko Ahvenniemi
  • Andrew R. Akbashev
  • Saima Ali
  • Mikhael Bechelany
  • Maria Berdova
  • Stefan Boyadjiev
  • David C. Cameron
  • Rong Chen
  • Mikhail Chubarov
  • Veronique Cremers
  • Anjana Devi
  • Viktor Drozd
  • Liliya Elnikova
  • Gloria Gottardi
  • Kestutis Grigoras
  • Dennis M. Hausmann
  • Cheol Seong Hwang
  • Shih Hui Jen
  • Jaana Kanervo
  • Ivan Khmelnitskiy
  • Do Han Kim
  • Lev Klibanov
  • Yury Koshtyal
  • A. Outi I. Krause
  • Jakob Kuhs
  • Irina Kärkkänen
  • Marja Leena Kääriäinen
  • Tommi Kääriäinen
  • Luca Lamagna
  • Adam A. Łapicki
  • Markku Leskelä
  • Jussi Lyytinen
  • Anatoly Malkov
  • Anatoly Malygin
  • Abdelkader Mennad
  • Christian Militzer
  • Jyrki Molarius
  • Małgorzata Norek
  • Çaǧla Özgit-Akgün
  • Mikhail Panov
  • Henrik Pedersen
  • Fabien Piallat
  • Georgi Popov
  • Geert Rampelberg
  • Erwan Rauwel
  • Fred Roozeboom
  • Timo Sajavaara
  • Hossein Salami
  • Nathanaelle Schneider
  • Thomas E. Seidel
  • Jonas Sundqvist
  • Dmitry B. Suyatin
  • Tobias Törndahl
  • J. Ruud Van Ommen
  • Claudia Wiemer
  • Oksana Yurkevich

Research units

  • Stanford University
  • CNRS Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
  • University of Twente
  • Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
  • Masaryk University
  • Huazhong University of Science and Technology
  • Ghent University
  • Ruhr University Bochum
  • St. Petersburg State University
  • Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics
  • Seoul National University
  • Global Foundries, Inc.
  • St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University
  • Techinsights
  • Ioffe Institute
  • SENTECH Instruments GmbH
  • NovaldMedical Ltd Oy
  • STMicroelectronics
  • Seagate Technology (Ireland)
  • University of Helsinki
  • St. Petersburg State Institute of Technology
  • Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables
  • Chemnitz University of Technology
  • Summa Semiconductor Oy
  • Military University of Technology Warsaw
  • ASELSAN Inc.
  • Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research
  • University of Maryland, College Park
  • Seitek50
  • Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems
  • Lund University
  • Uppsala University
  • Delft University of Technology
  • CNR
  • Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University
  • Université Grenoble Alpes
  • Fondazione Bruno Kessler
  • VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
  • Lam Research Corporation
  • Åbo Akademi University
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Linköping University
  • Tallinn University of Technology
  • Eindhoven University of Technology
  • University of Jyväskylä
  • Institut de recherche et développement sur l’énergie photovoltaïque
  • L’Institut Photovoltaïque d’Île-de-France


Atomic layer deposition (ALD), a gas-phase thin film deposition technique based on repeated, self-terminating gas-solid reactions, has become the method of choice in semiconductor manufacturing and many other technological areas for depositing thin conformal inorganic material layers for various applications. ALD has been discovered and developed independently, at least twice, under different names: atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) and molecular layering. ALE, dating back to 1974 in Finland, has been commonly known as the origin of ALD, while work done since the 1960s in the Soviet Union under the name "molecular layering" (and sometimes other names) has remained much less known. The virtual project on the history of ALD (VPHA) is a volunteer-based effort with open participation, set up to make the early days of ALD more transparent. In VPHA, started in July 2013, the target is to list, read and comment on all early ALD academic and patent literature up to 1986. VPHA has resulted in two essays and several presentations at international conferences. This paper, based on a poster presentation at the 16th International Conference on Atomic Layer Deposition in Dublin, Ireland, 2016, presents a recommended reading list of early ALD publications, created collectively by the VPHA participants through voting. The list contains 22 publications from Finland, Japan, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and United States. Up to now, a balanced overview regarding the early history of ALD has been missing; the current list is an attempt to remedy this deficiency.


Original languageEnglish
Article number010801
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017
MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal

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