Reserve Allocation of Photovoltaic Systems to Improve Frequency Stability in Hybrid Power Systems

Mehdi Tavakoli, Jafar Adabi, Sasan Zabihi, Radu Godina, Edris Pouresmaeil

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)
205 Downloads (Pure)


This study suggests a model to include a solar power system or photovoltaic system (PV) in the control of frequency by taking into account a percentage of the PV power production for back-up reserve. This is done by investigating two scenarios: PV contribution in (1) initial primary frequency control and (2) entire primary frequency control. As explained in section three, 10% power of the PV modules which receive more than 400 w/m2 irradiation is allocated for the power reserve. The power generation of photovoltaic systems depends largely on weather conditions which makes their output power associated with some degree of uncertainty. For this reason, in this paper, a PV system is considered along with conventional hydro and thermal units and they are modeled in MATLAB/Simulink (version 9.3, MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA) with the purpose of exploring the behavior of the intended method. In the next phase, for further studies, this system is extended to multi-area power systems including gas turbines. The results of the simulation demonstrated that the photovoltaic involvement in the control of frequency can successfully amend the frequency of the overall network. Not only it can decrease the overshoot and undershoot of the frequency response, it has the ability to improve the settling time as well, which helps the system reach the steady state easily and in shorter time. Specifically, the overshoot has reached nearly zero in both one area and two area systems and undershoot has declined up to 60% and 50% in the one area and two-area system, respectively. Considering settling time, while it had a negligible improvement in the one area system, it showed a remarkable enhancement in the two-area system, which improved from about 25 s to 6 s by using the proposed method. View Full-Text
Original languageEnglish
Article number2583
Number of pages19
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • photovoltaic system
  • PV
  • frequency control
  • particle swarm optimization
  • PSO
  • PI controller
  • reserve power allocation


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