Remediation in the hybrid media environment: Understanding countermedia in context

Pihla Toivanen, Matti Nelimarkka*, Katja Valaskivi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


We examine the position of five online-only ‘countermedia’ publications often publicly labelled as ‘fake media’ and use them to indicate how the ‘post-truth era’ takes place. Both academic and public discussions perceive countermedia as separate and distinct from the established, professionally produced journalist media outlets. We argue that the studied outlets are an integral part of the hybrid media environment. Our data show countermedia mainly remediate content initially published by professional Finnish media. We also suggest that media references are used strategically to explicate a relationship with mainstream media, as there are different ways of remediating the mainstream media content. This evidence contributes to the growing body of work criticising the usage of the ‘fake media’ concept and attempts to create a more nuanced understanding of countermedia’s role in its contexts. Furthermore, we suggest remediation as a lens may help scholars understand the integrated hybrid media environment.

Original languageEnglish
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Computational media studies
  • countermedia
  • intermedia agenda setting
  • link network analysis
  • post-truth era
  • remediation


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