Reliability of Lead-Free Solder Interconnections in Thermal and Power Cycling Tests

Jue Li*, Juha Karppinen, Tomi Laurila, Jorma Kalevi Kivilahti

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    38 Citations (Scopus)


    Lead-free solder interconnection reliability of thin fine-pitch ball grid array (BGA) lead-free packages has been studied experimentally as well as with finite-element (FE) simulations. The reliability tests were composed of the thermal shock test, the local thermal cycling test (resistors embedded in the board around the package), and the power cycling test (heat generation in the die). A 3-D board-level finite-element analysis (FEA) with local models was carried out to estimate the reliability of the solder interconnections under various test conditions. Due to the transient nature of the local thermal cycling test and the power cycling test, a sequential thermal-structural coupling analysis was employed to simulate the transient temperature distribution as well as the mechanical responses. Darveaux's approach was used to predict the life time of the solder interconnections. Furthermore, the numerical results validated by the experimental results indicated that the diagonal solder interconnections beneath the die edge were the most critical ones of all the tests studied here. It has been found that the fatigue life in the power cycling test was much longer than that in the other two tests. Detailed discussions about the failure mechanism of solder interconnections as well as the microstructural observations of the primary cracks are reported in this paper.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)302-308
    Number of pages7
    JournalIEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 2009
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • FEM
    • Finite-element method
    • power cycling test
    • reliability
    • solder joint
    • thermal shock test

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