Refining a Deep Learning-based Formant Tracker using Linear Prediction Methods

Paavo Alku, Sudarsana Kadiri, Dhananjaya Gowda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
92 Downloads (Pure)


In this study, formant tracking is investigated by refining the formants tracked by an existing data-driven tracker, DeepFormants, using the formants estimated in a model-driven manner by linear prediction (LP) -based methods. As LP-based formant estimation methods, conventional covariance analysis (LP-COV) and the recently proposed quasi-closed phase forward-backward (QCP-FB) analysis are used. In the proposed refinement approach, the contours of the three lowest for-
mants are first predicted by the data-driven DeepFormants tracker, and the predicted formants are replaced frame-wise with local spectral peaks shown by the model-driven LP-based methods. The refinement procedure can be plugged into the DeepFormants tracker with no need for any new data learning. Two refined DeepFormants trackers were compared with the original DeepFormants and with five known traditional trackers using the popular vocal tract resonance (VTR) corpus. The results indicated that the data-driven DeepFormants trackers outperformed the conventional trackers and that the best performance was obtained by refining the formants predicted by DeepFormants using QCP-FB analysis. In addition, by tracking formants using VTR speech that was corrupted
by additive noise, the study showed that the refined DeepFormants trackers were more resilient to noise than the reference trackers. In general, these results suggest that LP-based model-driven approaches, which have traditionally been used in formant estimation, can be combined with a modern data-driven tracker easily with no further training to improve the tracker’s performance.
Original languageEnglish
Article number101515
Number of pages11
JournalComputer Speech and Language
Early online date24 Mar 2023
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Speech analysis
  • Vocal tract resonances
  • Formant tracking
  • Linear prediction
  • DeepFormants


Dive into the research topics of 'Refining a Deep Learning-based Formant Tracker using Linear Prediction Methods'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this