Reducing contact resistance in graphene devices

Research output: ThesisMaster's thesis


In this thesis, the contact resistance of graphene devices was investigated because high contact resistance is detrimental to the performance of graphene field-effect transistors (GFET). Method for increasing so-called edge-contact area was applied in device fabrication process, as few nanometers thick Ni layer was used as a catalytic etchant during the annealing process. Finally, Ni was also used as a metal for contact. GFETs were fabricated using electron beam lithography using graphene fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD).
Critical part of the fabrication process was to preserve the high quality of the graphene channel while etching the graphene at contact areas with Ni during the annealing. This was achieved by optimizing the combination of temperature and gas flows. The structural properties of graphene were studied using scanning electron microscopy, scanning confocal μ-Raman spectroscopy and optical microscopy. Evaluation of electric transport properties including contact resistance was carried out by transmission line method and four-probe method. The lowest contact resistance found was about at 350 Ωμm.
In addition, different methods to transfer CVD graphene synthesized on copper were studied. Typical method using PMMA as a supporting layer leaves some residues after its removal, thus effecting on the performance of a graphene devices. In a metal assisted transfer method, metal is used as an interfacial layer between PMMA and graphene. This allows more effective removal of PMMA. However, Raman spectra of graphene transferred by metal assisted method showed somewhat lower quality than the PMMA assisted method
Original languageEnglish
QualificationMaster's degree
Awarding Institution
  • Lappeenranta University of Technology
  • Lähderanta, Erkki, Supervising Professor
  • Lipsanen, Harri, Supervising Professor
  • Riikonen, Juha, Thesis Advisor
Publication statusPublished - 18 Jun 2014
MoE publication typeG2 Master's thesis, polytechnic Master's thesis

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