Reconfigurable pH-Responsive DNA Origami Lattices

Sofia Julin, Veikko Linko*, Mauri A. Kostiainen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
20 Downloads (Pure)


DNA nanotechnology enables straightforward fabrication of user-defined and nanometer-precise templates for a cornucopia of different uses. To date, most of these DNA assemblies have been static, but dynamic structures are increasingly coming into view. The programmability of DNA not only allows for encoding of the DNA object shape but also it may be equally used in defining the mechanism of action and the type of stimuli-responsiveness of the dynamic structures. However, these “robotic” features of DNA nanostructures are usually demonstrated for only small, discrete, and device-like objects rather than for collectively behaving higher-order systems. Here, we show how a large-scale, two-dimensional (2D) and pH-responsive DNA origami-based lattice can be assembled into two different configurations (“open” and “closed” states) on a mica substrate and further switched from one to the other distinct state upon a pH change of the surrounding solution. The control over these two configurations is achieved by equipping the arms of the lattice-forming DNA origami units with “pH-latches” that form Hoogsteen-type triplexes at low pH. In short, we demonstrate how the electrostatic control over the adhesion and mobility of the DNA origami units on the surface can be used both in the large lattice formation (with the help of directed polymerization) and in the conformational switching of the whole lattice. To further emphasize the feasibility of the method, we also demonstrate the formation of pH-responsive 2D gold nanoparticle lattices. We believe this work can bridge the nanometer-precise DNA origami templates and higher-order large-scale systems with the stimuli-induced dynamicity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11014–11022
JournalACS Nano
Issue number11
Early online date31 May 2023
Publication statusPublished - 13 Jun 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • DNA nanotechnology
  • DNA origami
  • DNA triplex
  • hierarchical self-assembly
  • metal nanoparticles
  • pH control


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