Rapid Photogrammetry with a 360-Degree Camera for Tunnel Mapping

Mateusz Janiszewski*, Masoud Torkan, Lauri Uotinen, Mikael Rinne

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)
289 Downloads (Pure)


Structure-from-Motion Multi-View Stereo (SfM-MVS) photogrammetry is a viable method to digitize underground spaces for inspection, documentation, or remote mapping. However, the conventional image acquisition process can be laborious and time-consuming. Previous studies confirmed that the acquisition time can be reduced when using a 360-degree camera to capture the images. This paper demonstrates a method for rapid photogrammetric reconstruction of tunnels using a 360-degree camera. The method is demonstrated in a field test executed in a tunnel section of the Underground Research Laboratory of Aalto University in Espoo, Finland. A 10 m-long tunnel section with exposed rock was photographed using the 360-degree camera from 27 locations and a 3D model was reconstructed using SfM-MVS photogrammetry. The resulting model was then compared with a reference laser scan and a more conventional digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera-based model. Image acquisition with a 360-degree camera was 3× faster than with a conventional DSLR camera and the workflow was easier and less prone to errors. The 360-degree camera-based model achieved a 0.0046 m distance accuracy error compared to the reference laser scan. In addition, the orientation of discontinuities was measured remotely from the 3D model and the digitally obtained values matched the manual compass measurements of the sub-vertical fracture sets, with an average error of 2–5°.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5494
Number of pages20
JournalRemote Sensing
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - 31 Oct 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • photogrammetry
  • 360 degree camera system
  • tunnel
  • remote mapping
  • rock mass characterization


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