Black phosphorus (BP) is a layered semiconductor that recently has been the subject of intense research due to its novel electrical and optical properties, which compare favorably to those of graphene and the transition metal dichalcogenides. In particular, BP has a direct bandgap that is thickness-dependent and highly anisotropic, making BP an interesting material for nanoscale optical and optoelectronic applications. Here, we present a study of the anisotropic third-harmonic generation (THG) in exfoliated BP using a fast scanning multiphoton characterization method. We find that the anisotropic THG arises directly from the crystal structure of BP. We calculate the effective third-order susceptibility of BP to be 1.64 × 10-19 m2 V-2. Further, we demonstrate that multiphoton microscopy can be used for rapid, large-area characterization indexing of the crystallographic orientations of many exfoliated BP flakes from one set of multiphoton images. This method is therefore beneficial for samples of areas 1 cm2 in future investigations of the properties and growth of BP.