Raman analysis: Detection of minerals and measurement of concentration using reference spectra

Tommi Kauppinen, Olli Haavisto, Navid Khajehzadeh, Heikki Häkkänen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Raman analysis is a well-established method for finding the abundant minerals in an ore sample. In this study, Raman spectroscopy is tested as a method for rapid and contactless on-line mineral analysis. Rapidness might enable on-site analysis of rock drillcore, which in turn would lead to more cost-efficient solutions in mineral exploration. This paper discusses the use of Raman analysis to identify minerals and to measure their concentration. The sample set under study consists of rock drillcore collected from Agnico-Eagle Kittilä Mine, Finland. Selected parts of the sample set are measured by Raman spectroscopy and the minerals are identified using reference spectra from a public source. Moreover, the direct measurement of concentration of different minerals with the help of Non-negative least squares (NNLS) optimisation algorithm is considered. The optimisation algorithm was constructed to form a linear combination of reference spectra which best represent the measured spectrum, or an average of measured spectra, from an ore sample. The results show that NNLS can identify abundant minerals in a given sample. Also through this method of analysis the results of a traditional point-count method can be expanded: It was observed that, due to grain size, multiple minerals consistently appear in the spectra measured over an area, which means that point-count method is not a proper way to interpret the spectra. This can be seen as a new result, as formerly the discussion has attended to other methods.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIMPC 2014 - 27th International Mineral Processing Congress
PublisherUniversidad de Chile
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeA4 Conference publication
EventInternational Mineral Processing Congress - Santiago, Chile
Duration: 20 Oct 201424 Oct 2014
Conference number: 27


ConferenceInternational Mineral Processing Congress
Abbreviated titleIMPC


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