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The design, simulation, and characterization of a quasioptical system for submillimeter-wave quantification of corneal thickness and water content are presented. The optics operate in the 220-330 GHz band and are comprised of two, custom aspheric, biconvex lenses in a Gaussian beam telescope configuration. The design produces broadband wavefront curvature matching to 7.5 mm radius of curvature target surfaces thus emulating a plane-wave-on-planar-media condition and enabling application of stratified medium theory to data analysis. Aspheric lens coefficients were optimized with geometric ray tracing subject to optical path length penalties and physical-optics simulations showed aspheric designs achieved wavefront coupling to spherical surfaces, superior to equivalent, canonical hyperbolic lenses. The fabricated lens system was characterized in a planar near-field scanner system and demonstrated good agreement to physical-optics simulations. An average central corneal thickness of 652 μm and free water content volume of 47% were extracted from ex vivo sheep corneas via complex s-parameters and agree with literature values. Extracted contact lens thickness and water content agreed with independently validated values. Moreover, the quasioptical system enabled observation of dynamic changes in artificial tear-film, thickness, and water content. This work elucidates two major findings related to submillimeter-wave wavefront matching on spherical surfaces, with wavelength order radii of curvature: 1) An asphere whose sag coefficients are optimized via field phase variation on a spherical surface produces coupling superior to a plano-hyperbolic lens. 2) For most feasible apertures, the Gaussian beam waist is located in the aperture near field, suggesting consideration for operating in the beam near field.
|Pages (from-to)||135 - 149|
|Number of pages||15|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology|
|Publication status||Published - Mar 2021|
|MoE publication type||A1 Journal article-refereed|
- millimeter waves