We have experimentally studied the energy levels of a mesoscopic superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) using inelastic Cooper-pair tunneling. The tunneling in a small Josephson junction depends strongly on its electromagnetic environment. We use this fact to do energy-level spectroscopy of a SQUID loop by coupling it to a small junction. Our samples with strong quasiparticle dissipation are well described by a model of a particle localized in one of the dips in a cosine potential, while in the samples with weak dissipation we can see formation of energy bands.
Lindell, R., Penttilä, J., Sillanpää, M., & Hakonen, P. (2003). Quantum States of a Mesoscopic SQUID measured using a Small Josephson Junction. Physical Review B, 68(5), 1-4. . https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.68.052506