The transcriptional network and protein regulators that govern T helper 17 (Th17) cell differentiation have been studied extensively using advanced genomic approaches. For a better understanding of these biological processes, we have moved a step forward, from gene- to protein-level characterization of Th17 cells. Mass spectrometry–based label-free quantitative (LFQ) proteomics analysis were made of in vitro differentiated murine Th17 and induced regulatory T (iTreg) cells. More than 4,000 proteins, covering almost all subcellular compartments, were detected. Quantitative comparison of the protein expression profiles resulted in the identification of proteins specifically expressed in the Th17 and iTreg cells. Importantly, our combined analysis of proteome and gene expression data revealed protein expression changes that were not associated with changes at the transcriptional level. Our dataset provides a valuable resource, with new insights into the proteomic characteristics of Th17 and iTreg cells, which may prove useful in developing treatment of autoimmune diseases and developing tumor immunotherapy.