Pulse-frequency-modulated high-frequency-carrier diffractive elements for pattern projection

Eero Tervonen, Jari Turunen, Jukka Pekola

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


An efficient two-stage algorithm is presented for the synthesis of high-frequency-carrier diffractive elements. First, an on-axis phase-only stripe-geometry element with an unconstrained profile along each stripe is designed by an iterative Fourier transform algorithm. In the second stage, a steep linear phase term is added, and the profile is hard- clipped along each stripe. The result is a binary, pulse-frequency-modulated element suitable, e.g., for a resonance-domain realization, which permits the elimination of the twin image. Experimental results are provided by direct-write electron-beam lithography and optical lithography, using both fully and partially coherent illumination.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2579-2587
Number of pages9
JournalOptical engineering
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 1994
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • diffraction
  • gratings
  • lithography

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