Protonation of Lix(Co,Ni,Mn)O2 compounds in acidic conditions

Irina Aleksandrova, Elena A. Medina, Maarit Karppinen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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The easy intercalation/deintercalation of Li+ ions is the key factor for the functionality of the layered LixCoO2 compound as a Li-ion battery cathode material. However, the hexagonal CoO2-layer piling in the LixCoO2 structure is prone to incorporate not only monopositively-charged lithium ions but also monopositive protons. Here we employ a hydrothermal acid treatment for a gradual (controlled by the treatment time) de-intercalation of Li+ ions and a subsequent intercalation of protons between the CoO2 layers in LixCoO2. We demonstrate that the lithium-for-proton exchange reaction can be monitored by AAS for the Li-content, by XRD for the proton-containing phase formation, and by FTIR and TG for the appearance of specific features indicative of the incorporated protons. With XPS we verify that upon the lithium-for-proton exchange the valence of cobalt remains the same, i.e. the proton incorporation compensates the positive charge loss due to the Li+-ion extraction. Finally, we show that essentially parallel lithium-for-proton exchange reactions occur also for Ni- and Mn-substituted Li(Co,Ni,Mn)O2 samples, that is, for compounds that are highly relevant in current Li-ion battery technology.

Original languageEnglish
Article number121478
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Solid State Chemistry
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Li-ion de-intercalation
  • Li(Co,Ni,Mn)O
  • Lithium cobalt oxide
  • Proton intercalation


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