Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been intensely researched for more than two decades. Electrolyte formulations are one of the bottlenecks to their successful commercialization, since these result in trade-offs between the photovoltaic performance and long-term performance stability. The corrosive nature of the redox shuttles in the electrolytes is an additional limitation for industrial-scale production of DSSCs, especially with low cost metallic electrodes. Numerous electrolyte formulations have been developed and tested in various DSSC configurations to address the aforementioned challenges. Here, we comprehensively review the progress on the development and application of electrolytes for DSSCs. We particularly focus on the improvements that have been made in different types of electrolytes, which result in enhanced photovoltaic performance and long-term device stability of DSSCs. Several recently introduced electrolyte materials are reviewed, and the role of electrolytes in different DSSC device designs is critically assessed. To sum up, we provide an overview of recent trends in research on electrolytes for DSSCs and highlight the advantages and limitations of recently reported novel electrolyte compositions for producing low-cost and industrially scalable solar cell technology.
- Charge transfer
- Cobalt redox shuttles and iodine electrolytes
- Copper redox shuttles
- Dye-sensitized solar cells
- Hole-transporting materials