Primary Energy Factors for Different District Heating Networks: An Estonian Example

Eduard Latõšov*, Jarek Kurnitski, Martin Thalfeldt, Anna Volkova

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
142 Downloads (Pure)


This paper examines the variation of the PEFs for DH networks in Estonia. The Estonian average DH PEF as well as for DH networks with different configurations are calculated based on principles described in EVS-EN 15316-4-5:2007. The initial data for calculation of Estonian DH PEF is from Statistics Estonia. The calculation results are analyzed and compared with the existing DH PEF. The conclusive part consists of the observed compliance of valid PEF value and its determination principles with the definition and nature of PEFs. The main discrepancies are highlighted and analyzed. The possibilities to minimize or avoid them are given.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSustainable Built Environment Tallinn and Helsinki Conference SBE16
Subtitle of host publicationBuild Green and Renovate Deep
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
EventSustainable Built Environment Tallinn and Helsinki Conference: Build Green and Renovate Deep - Tallinn, Estonia
Duration: 5 Oct 20167 Oct 2016

Publication series

NameEnergy Procedia
ISSN (Electronic)1876-6102


ConferenceSustainable Built Environment Tallinn and Helsinki Conference
Abbreviated titleSBE


  • EPBD
  • EVS-EN 15316-4-5:2007
  • PEF
  • Primary energy


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