Predictable quantum efficient detector based on n-type silicon photodiodes

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Predictable quantum efficient detector based on n-type silicon photodiodes. / Dönsberg, Timo; Manoocheri, Farshid; Sildoja, Meelis; Juntunen, Mikko; Savin, Hele; Tuovinen, Esa; Ronkainen, Hannu; Prunnila, Mika; Merimaa, Mikko; Tang, Chi Kwong; Gran, Jarle; Mueller, Ingmar; Werner, Lutz; Rougie, Bernard; Pons, Alicia; Smid, Marek; Gal, Peter; Lolli, Lapo; Brida, Giorgio; Rastello, Maria Luisa; Ikonen, Erkki.

In: Metrologia, Vol. 54, No. 6, 12.2017, p. 821-836.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Dönsberg, T, Manoocheri, F, Sildoja, M, Juntunen, M, Savin, H, Tuovinen, E, Ronkainen, H, Prunnila, M, Merimaa, M, Tang, CK, Gran, J, Mueller, I, Werner, L, Rougie, B, Pons, A, Smid, M, Gal, P, Lolli, L, Brida, G, Rastello, ML & Ikonen, E 2017, 'Predictable quantum efficient detector based on n-type silicon photodiodes', Metrologia, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 821-836. https://doi.org/10.1088/1681-7575/aa85ed

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Dönsberg, Timo ; Manoocheri, Farshid ; Sildoja, Meelis ; Juntunen, Mikko ; Savin, Hele ; Tuovinen, Esa ; Ronkainen, Hannu ; Prunnila, Mika ; Merimaa, Mikko ; Tang, Chi Kwong ; Gran, Jarle ; Mueller, Ingmar ; Werner, Lutz ; Rougie, Bernard ; Pons, Alicia ; Smid, Marek ; Gal, Peter ; Lolli, Lapo ; Brida, Giorgio ; Rastello, Maria Luisa ; Ikonen, Erkki. / Predictable quantum efficient detector based on n-type silicon photodiodes. In: Metrologia. 2017 ; Vol. 54, No. 6. pp. 821-836.

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@article{0440f55842f6459ca0e35da3a641bbec,
title = "Predictable quantum efficient detector based on n-type silicon photodiodes",
abstract = "The predictable quantum efficient detector (PQED) consists of two custom-made induced junction photodiodes that are mounted in a wedged trap configuration for the reduction of reflectance losses. Until now, all manufactured PQED photodiodes have been based on a structure where a SiO2 layer is thermally grown on top of p-type silicon substrate. In this paper, we present the design, manufacturing, modelling and characterization of a new type of PQED, where the photodiodes have an Al2O3 layer on top of n-type silicon substrate. Atomic layer deposition is used to deposit the layer to the desired thickness. Two sets of photodiodes with varying oxide thicknesses and substrate doping concentrations were fabricated. In order to predict recombination losses of charge carriers, a 3D model of the photodiode was built into Cogenda Genius semiconductor simulation software. It is important to note that a novel experimental method was developed to obtain values for the 3D model parameters. This makes the prediction of the PQED responsivity a completely autonomous process. Detectors were characterized for temperature dependence of dark current, spatial uniformity of responsivity, reflectance, linearity and absolute responsivity at the wavelengths of 488 nm and 532 nm. For both sets of photodiodes, the modelled and measured responsivities were generally in agreement within the measurement and modelling uncertainties of around 100 parts per million (ppm). There is, however, an indication that the modelled internal quantum deficiency may be underestimated by a similar amount. Moreover, the responsivities of the detectors were spatially uniform within 30 ppm peak-to-peak variation. The results obtained in this research indicate that the n-type induced junction photodiode is a very promising alternative to the existing p-type detectors, and thus give additional credibility to the concept of modelled quantum detector serving as a primary standard. Furthermore, the manufacturing of PQEDs is no longer dependent on the availability of a certain type of very lightly doped p-type silicon wafers.",
keywords = "radiometry, induced junction, silicon photodetector, primary standard, radiant flux, ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION, RESPONSE SELF-CALIBRATION, INDUCED-JUNCTION, CRYOGENIC RADIOMETER, ROOM-TEMPERATURE, INVERSION LAYER, ABSOLUTE, ACCURACY, NONLINEARITY, METROLOGY",
author = "Timo D{\"o}nsberg and Farshid Manoocheri and Meelis Sildoja and Mikko Juntunen and Hele Savin and Esa Tuovinen and Hannu Ronkainen and Mika Prunnila and Mikko Merimaa and Tang, {Chi Kwong} and Jarle Gran and Ingmar Mueller and Lutz Werner and Bernard Rougie and Alicia Pons and Marek Smid and Peter Gal and Lapo Lolli and Giorgio Brida and Rastello, {Maria Luisa} and Erkki Ikonen",
year = "2017",
month = "12",
doi = "10.1088/1681-7575/aa85ed",
language = "English",
volume = "54",
pages = "821--836",
journal = "Metrologia",
issn = "0026-1394",
number = "6",

}

RIS - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - Predictable quantum efficient detector based on n-type silicon photodiodes

AU - Dönsberg, Timo

AU - Manoocheri, Farshid

AU - Sildoja, Meelis

AU - Juntunen, Mikko

AU - Savin, Hele

AU - Tuovinen, Esa

AU - Ronkainen, Hannu

AU - Prunnila, Mika

AU - Merimaa, Mikko

AU - Tang, Chi Kwong

AU - Gran, Jarle

AU - Mueller, Ingmar

AU - Werner, Lutz

AU - Rougie, Bernard

AU - Pons, Alicia

AU - Smid, Marek

AU - Gal, Peter

AU - Lolli, Lapo

AU - Brida, Giorgio

AU - Rastello, Maria Luisa

AU - Ikonen, Erkki

PY - 2017/12

Y1 - 2017/12

N2 - The predictable quantum efficient detector (PQED) consists of two custom-made induced junction photodiodes that are mounted in a wedged trap configuration for the reduction of reflectance losses. Until now, all manufactured PQED photodiodes have been based on a structure where a SiO2 layer is thermally grown on top of p-type silicon substrate. In this paper, we present the design, manufacturing, modelling and characterization of a new type of PQED, where the photodiodes have an Al2O3 layer on top of n-type silicon substrate. Atomic layer deposition is used to deposit the layer to the desired thickness. Two sets of photodiodes with varying oxide thicknesses and substrate doping concentrations were fabricated. In order to predict recombination losses of charge carriers, a 3D model of the photodiode was built into Cogenda Genius semiconductor simulation software. It is important to note that a novel experimental method was developed to obtain values for the 3D model parameters. This makes the prediction of the PQED responsivity a completely autonomous process. Detectors were characterized for temperature dependence of dark current, spatial uniformity of responsivity, reflectance, linearity and absolute responsivity at the wavelengths of 488 nm and 532 nm. For both sets of photodiodes, the modelled and measured responsivities were generally in agreement within the measurement and modelling uncertainties of around 100 parts per million (ppm). There is, however, an indication that the modelled internal quantum deficiency may be underestimated by a similar amount. Moreover, the responsivities of the detectors were spatially uniform within 30 ppm peak-to-peak variation. The results obtained in this research indicate that the n-type induced junction photodiode is a very promising alternative to the existing p-type detectors, and thus give additional credibility to the concept of modelled quantum detector serving as a primary standard. Furthermore, the manufacturing of PQEDs is no longer dependent on the availability of a certain type of very lightly doped p-type silicon wafers.

AB - The predictable quantum efficient detector (PQED) consists of two custom-made induced junction photodiodes that are mounted in a wedged trap configuration for the reduction of reflectance losses. Until now, all manufactured PQED photodiodes have been based on a structure where a SiO2 layer is thermally grown on top of p-type silicon substrate. In this paper, we present the design, manufacturing, modelling and characterization of a new type of PQED, where the photodiodes have an Al2O3 layer on top of n-type silicon substrate. Atomic layer deposition is used to deposit the layer to the desired thickness. Two sets of photodiodes with varying oxide thicknesses and substrate doping concentrations were fabricated. In order to predict recombination losses of charge carriers, a 3D model of the photodiode was built into Cogenda Genius semiconductor simulation software. It is important to note that a novel experimental method was developed to obtain values for the 3D model parameters. This makes the prediction of the PQED responsivity a completely autonomous process. Detectors were characterized for temperature dependence of dark current, spatial uniformity of responsivity, reflectance, linearity and absolute responsivity at the wavelengths of 488 nm and 532 nm. For both sets of photodiodes, the modelled and measured responsivities were generally in agreement within the measurement and modelling uncertainties of around 100 parts per million (ppm). There is, however, an indication that the modelled internal quantum deficiency may be underestimated by a similar amount. Moreover, the responsivities of the detectors were spatially uniform within 30 ppm peak-to-peak variation. The results obtained in this research indicate that the n-type induced junction photodiode is a very promising alternative to the existing p-type detectors, and thus give additional credibility to the concept of modelled quantum detector serving as a primary standard. Furthermore, the manufacturing of PQEDs is no longer dependent on the availability of a certain type of very lightly doped p-type silicon wafers.

KW - radiometry

KW - induced junction

KW - silicon photodetector

KW - primary standard

KW - radiant flux

KW - ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION

KW - RESPONSE SELF-CALIBRATION

KW - INDUCED-JUNCTION

KW - CRYOGENIC RADIOMETER

KW - ROOM-TEMPERATURE

KW - INVERSION LAYER

KW - ABSOLUTE

KW - ACCURACY

KW - NONLINEARITY

KW - METROLOGY

U2 - 10.1088/1681-7575/aa85ed

DO - 10.1088/1681-7575/aa85ed

M3 - Article

VL - 54

SP - 821

EP - 836

JO - Metrologia

JF - Metrologia

SN - 0026-1394

IS - 6

ER -

ID: 15878817