Practical Coarse Relay Site Planning: Performance Analysis Over Composite Fading/Shadowing Channels

Ömer Bulakci*, Jyri Hämäläinen, Egon Schulz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Relay deployments promise to alleviate the limitations of conventional macrocell networks, such as poor indoor penetration and coverage holes in a cost-efficient way. In this context, the capacity of the wireless relay link between a relay node (RN) and its serving base station has a crucial impact on the end-to-end performance. The deployment flexibility of RNs, which mainly stems from the wireless relay link, compact physical characteristics, and low-power consumption, can be exploited by relay site planning (RSP) to overcome the limitations of the relay link and, thus, enhance the system performance. To this end, RSP is carried out via selecting an RN deployment location from a discrete set of alternatives considering the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) on the relay link as the selection criterion. In practice, the so-called coarse RSP takes into account only large-scale fading due to shadowing. Nevertheless, as RNs are stationary, the wireless channels pertaining to relay deployments are subject to simultaneous impairments by both shadowing and multi-path fading, i.e., composite fading/shadowing. In this paper, we present the performance of coarse RSP that can be used for planning and dimensioning of two-hop cellular relay networks in composite fading/shadowing environments, where co-channel interference is also present. The relay link is modeled by Nakagami-lognormal distribution while the access link between a mobile terminal and its serving RN is modeled by Rician-lognormal distribution. Further, we provide an accurate analytical framework through closed-form expressions for relay link SINR, link rates, and end-to-end rate. Results show that coarse RSP can still yield high performance improvements in terms of both SINR and rate considering composite fading/shadowing channels. Moreover, coarse RSP is shown to effectively decrease the amount of fading on the relay link and, thus, mitigate the detrimental effects of composite fading/shadowing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)249-261
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Wireless Information Networks
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2014
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Composite fading/shadowing
  • Heterogeneous networks
  • Relay deployments
  • Relay site planning


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