This article uses modeling to demonstrate the potential of utilizing aggregated electrical load of escalators in demand response events and, in particular, for frequency containment reserve markets (FCR). In the paper, we model 3000 commercial and transportation escalators, creating five scenarios, where the ratio of intermittent-operating escalators varies from 0% to 100% at intervals of 25%. The model employs partial speed reduction during an hour as the main method for curtailment of power consumption. The power profiles of the aggregated escalator load are calculated for each hour in each scenario for two methods of power curtailment. In the first method, the speed change happens only when there is no passengers on the escalator to accommodate the safety measures. The second method applies the speed change within one second from the time of initiation, regardless of passengers presence on the escalator. The results clearly indicate that escalators have potential to participate in frequency containment DR events either as a stand-alone aggregated load or as a part of a more complex solution with other technologies. With 3000 escalator units and the ratio of intermittent-operating escalators above 25%, there is potential for curtailing from 0.5 to 3 MW of power consumption and the possibility to participate in FCR-N and -D markets.
- Demand response
- Frequency containment reserve
- Power reduction
- Vertical transportation