The disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) directly at landfills or open dump areas, without segregation and treatment, is a significant concern due to its hazardous contents of antibioticresistant bacteria (ARB), antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), and metal resistance genes (MGEs). The released leachate from landfills greatly effects the soil physicochemical, biological, and groundwater properties associated with agricultural activity and human health. The abundance of ARB, ARGs, and MGEs have been reported worldwide, including MSW landfill sites, animal husbandry, wastewater, groundwater, soil, and aerosol. This review elucidates the occurrence and abundance of ARB, ARGs, and MRGs, which are regarded as emerging contaminants (ECs). Recently, ECs have received global attention because of their prevalence in leachate as a substantial threat to environmental and public health, including an economic burden for developing nations. The present review exclusively discusses the demands to develop a novel eco-friendly management strategy to combat these global issues. This review also gives an intrinsic discussion about the insights of different aspects of environmental and public health concerns caused due to massive leachate generation, the abundance of antibiotics resistance (AR), and the effects of released leachate on the various environmental reservoirs and human health. Furthermore, the current review throws light on the source and fate of different ECs of landfill leachate and their possible impact on the nearby environments (groundwater, surface water, and soil) affecting human health. The present review strongly suggests the demand for future research focuses on the advancement of the removal efficiency of contaminants with the improvement of relevant landfill management to reduce the potential effects of disposable waste. We propose the necessity of the identification and monitoring of potential environmental and human health risks associated with landfill leachate contaminants.
- Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs)
- Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB)
- Human health
- Landfill leachate
- Metal resistance genes (MRGs)
- Municipal solid waste (MSW)