Planck intermediate results: XVI. Profile likelihoods for cosmological parameters

P.A.R. Ade, N. Aghanim, M. Arnaud, M. Ashdown, J. Aumont, C. Baccigalupi, A.J. Banday, R.B. Barreiro, J.G. Bartlett, E. Battaner, K. Benabed, A. Benoit-Lévy, J.-P. Bernard, M. Bersanelli, P. Bielewicz, J. Bobin, A. Bonaldi, J.R. Bond, F.R. Bouchet, C. BuriganaJ.-F. Cardoso, A. Catalano, A. Chamballu, H.C. Chiang, P.R. Christensen, D.L. Clements, S. Colombi, L.P.L. Colombo, F. Couchot, F. Cuttaia, L. Danese, R.D. Davies, R.J. Davis, P. de Bernardis, A. de Rosa, G. de Zotti, J. Delabrouille, C. Dickinson, J.M. Diego, H. Dole, S. Donzelli, O. Doré, M. Douspis, X. Dupac, T.A. Enßlin, H.K. Eriksen, F. Finelli, O. Forni, M. Frailis, E. Franceschi, S. Galeotta, S. Galli, K. Ganga, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, J. González-Nuevo, K.M. Górski, A. Gregorio, A. Gruppuso, F.K. Hansen, D.L. Harrison, S. Henrot-Versillé, C. Hernández-Monteagudo, D. Herranz, S.R. Hildebrandt, E. Hivon, M. Hobson, W.A. Holmes, A. Hornstrup, W. Hovest, K.M. Huffenberger, A.H. Jaffe, T.R. Jaffe, W.C. Jones, M. Juvela, E. Keihänen, R. Keskitalo, T.S. Kisner, R. Kneissl, J. Knoche, L. Knox, M. Kunz, H. Kurki-Suonio, G. Lagache, A. Lähteenmäki, J.-M. Lamarre, A. Lasenby, C.R. Lawrence, R. Leonardi, A. Liddle, M. Liguori, P.B. Lilje, M. Linden-Vørnle, M. López-Caniego, P.M. Lubin, J.F. Macías-Pérez, B. Maffei, D. Maino, N. Mandolesi, M. Maris, P.G. Martin, E. Martínez-González, S. Masi, M. Massardi, S. Matarrese, P. Mazzotta, A. Melchiorri, L. Mendes, A. Mennella, M. Migliaccio, S. Mitra, M.-A. Miville-Deschênes, A. Moneti, L. Montier, G. Morgante, D. Munshi, J.A. Murphy, P. Naselsky, F. Nati, P. Natoli, F. Noviello, D. Novikov, I. Novikov, C.A. Oxborrow, L. Pagano, F. Pajot, D. Paoletti, F. Pasian, O. Perdereau, L. Perotto, F. Perrotta, V. Pettorino, F. Piacentini, M. Piat, E. Pierpaoli, D. Pietrobon, S. Plaszczynski, E. Pointecouteau, G. Polenta, L. Popa, G.W. Pratt, J.-L. Puget, J.P. Rachen, R. Rebolo, M. Reinecke, M. Remazeilles, C. Renault, S. Ricciardi, T. Riller, I. Ristorcelli, G. Rocha, C. Rosset, G. Roudier, B. "Rouillé d'Orfeuil", J.A. Rubiño-Martín, B. Rusholme, M. Sandri, M. Savelainen, G. Savini, L.D. Spencer, M. Spinelli, J.-L. Starck, F. Sureau, D. Sutton, A.-S. Suur-Uski, J.-F. Sygnet, J.A. Tauber, L. Terenzi, L. Toffolatti, M. Tomasi, M. Tristram, M. Tucci, G. Umana, L. Valenziano, J. Valiviita, B. Van Tent, P. Vielva, F. Villa, L.A. Wade, B.D. Wandelt, M. White, D. Yvon, A. Zacchei, A. Zonca

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Abstract

We explore the 2013 Planck likelihood function with a high-precision multi-dimensional minimizer (Minuit). This allows a refinement of the ΛCDM best-fit solution with respect to previously-released results, and the construction of frequentist confidence intervals using profile likelihoods. The agreement with the cosmological results from the Bayesian framework is excellent, demonstrating the robustness of the Planck results to the statistical methodology. We investigate the inclusion of neutrino masses, where more significant differences may appear due to the non-Gaussian nature of the posterior mass distribution. By applying the Feldman-Cousins prescription, we again obtain results very similar to those of the Bayesian methodology. However, the profile-likelihood analysis of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) combination (Planck+WP+highL) reveals a minimum well within the unphysical negative-mass region. We show that inclusion of the Planck CMB-lensing information regularizes this issue, and provide a robust frequentist upper limit ∑ mν ≤ 0.26 eV (95% confidence) from the CMB+lensing+BAO data combination.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberA54
Number of pages10
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Volume566
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • cosmic background radiation
  • cosmology: observations
  • cosmology: theory
  • cosmological parameters
  • methods: statistical

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