Planck intermediate results. XLV. Radio spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Researchers

  • Planck Collaboration
  • P. A. R. Ade
  • N. Aghanim
  • H. D. Aller
  • M. F. Aller
  • M. Arnaud
  • J. Aumont
  • C. Baccigalupi
  • A. J. Banday
  • R. B. Barreiro
  • N. Bartolo
  • E. Battaner
  • K. Benabed
  • A. Benoit-Lévy
  • J.-P. Bernard
  • M. Bersanelli
  • P. Bielewicz
  • A. Bonaldi
  • L. Bonavera
  • J. R. Bond
  • J. Borrill
  • F. R. Bouchet
  • C. Burigana
  • E. Calabrese
  • A. Catalano
  • H. C. Chiang
  • P. R. Christensen
  • D. L. Clements
  • L. P. L. Colombo
  • F. Couchot
  • B. P. Crill
  • A. Curto
  • F. Cuttaia
  • L. Danese
  • R. D. Davies
  • R. J. Davis
  • P. de Bernardis
  • A. de Rosa
  • G. de Zotti
  • J. Delabrouille
  • C. Dickinson
  • J. M. Diego
  • H. Dole
  • S. Donzelli
  • O. Doré
  • A. Ducout
  • X. Dupac
  • G. Efstathiou
  • F. Elsner
  • H. K. Eriksen
  • F. Finelli
  • O. Forni
  • M. Frailis
  • A. A. Fraisse
  • E. Franceschi
  • S. Galeotta
  • S. Galli
  • K. Ganga
  • M. Giard
  • Y. Giraud-Héraud
  • E. Gjerløw
  • J. González-Nuevo
  • K. M. Górski
  • A. Gruppuso
  • M. A. Gurwell
  • F. K. Hansen
  • D. L. Harrison
  • S. Henrot-Versillé
  • C. Hernández-Monteagudo
  • S. R. Hildebrandt
  • M. Hobson
  • A. Hornstrup
  • W. Hovest
  • K. M. Huffenberger
  • G. Hurier
  • A. H. Jaffe
  • T. R. Jaffe
  • E. Keihänen
  • R. Keskitalo
  • T. S. Kisner
  • R. Kneissl
  • J. Knoche
  • M. Kunz
  • H. Kurki-Suonio
  • J.-M. Lamarre
  • A. Lasenby
  • M. Lattanzi
  • C. R. Lawrence
  • R. Leonardi
  • F. Levrier
  • M. Liguori
  • P. B. Lilje
  • M. Linden-Vørnle
  • M. López-Caniego
  • P. M. Lubin
  • J. F. Macías-Pérez
  • B. Maffei
  • D. Maino
  • N. Mandolesi
  • M. Maris
  • P. G. Martin
  • E. Martínez-González
  • S. Masi
  • S. Matarrese
  • W. Max-Moerbeck
  • P. R. Meinhold
  • A. Melchiorri
  • A. Mennella
  • M. Migliaccio
  • M. Mingaliev
  • M.-A. Miville-Deschênes
  • A. Moneti
  • L. Montier
  • G. Morgante
  • D. Mortlock
  • D. Munshi
  • J. A. Murphy
  • F. Nati
  • P. Natoli
  • E. Nieppola
  • F. Noviello
  • D. Novikov
  • I. Novikov
  • L. Pagano
  • F. Pajot
  • D. Paoletti
  • B. Partridge
  • F. Pasian
  • T. J. Pearson
  • O. Perdereau
  • L. Perotto
  • V. Pettorino
  • F. Piacentini
  • M. Piat
  • E. Pierpaoli
  • S. Plaszczynski
  • E. Pointecouteau
  • G. Polenta
  • G. W. Pratt
  • V. Ramakrishnan
  • E. A. Rastorgueva-Foi
  • A. C. S Readhead
  • M. Reinecke
  • M. Remazeilles
  • C. Renault
  • A. Renzi
  • J. L. Richards
  • I. Ristorcelli
  • G. Rocha
  • M. Rossetti
  • G. Roudier
  • J. A. Rubiño-Martín
  • B. Rusholme
  • M. Sandri
  • G. Savini
  • D. Scott
  • Y. Sotnikova
  • V. Stolyarov
  • R. Sunyaev
  • D. Sutton
  • A.-S. Suur-Uski
  • J.-F. Sygnet
  • J. A. Tauber
  • L. Terenzi
  • L. Toffolatti
  • M. Tomasi
  • M. Tristram
  • M. Tucci
  • M. Türler
  • L. Valenziano
  • J. Valiviita
  • E. Valtaoja
  • B. Van Tent
  • P. Vielva
  • F. Villa
  • L. A. Wade
  • A. E. Wehrle
  • I. K. Wehus
  • D. Yvon
  • A. Zacchei
  • A. Zonca

Research units

  • Cardiff University
  • Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS (UMR8617) Université Paris-Sud 11, Bâtiment 121, 91405, Orsay, France
  • University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
  • Laboratoire AIM, IRFU/Service d'Astrophysique - CEA/DSM - CNRS - Université Paris Diderot, Bât. 709, CEA-Saclay, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France
  • International School for Advanced Studies
  • CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, 31028, Toulouse Cedex 4, France
  • Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria), Avda. de los Castros s/n, 39005, Santander, Spain
  • Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131, Padova, Italy
  • University of Granada
  • UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR7095, 98bis Boulevard Arago, 75014, Paris, France
  • INAF/IASF Milano, via E. Bassini 15, Milano, Italy
  • Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK
  • University of Toronto
  • Sorbonne Université-UPMC, UMR7095, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis Boulevard Arago, 75014, Paris, France
  • INFN, Sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126, Bologna, Italy
  • Sub-Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH, UK
  • LERMA, CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Avenue de l'Observatoire, 75000, Paris, France
  • Astrophysics & Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics & Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X54001, 4000, Durban, South Africa
  • Discovery Center, Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Imperial College London
  • Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California, USA
  • LAL, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, 91898, Orsay, France
  • Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA, 91125, USA
  • Kavli Institute for Cosmology Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA, UK
  • INAF/IASF Bologna, via Gobetti , 101, Bologna, Italy
  • Università La Sapienza
  • APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/lrfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205, Paris Cedex 13, France
  • Institut Universitaire de France, 103 bd Saint-Michel, 75005, Paris, France
  • European Space Agency, ESAC, Planck Science Office, Camino bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanización Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28691, Madrid, Spain
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Oslo
  • INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, Trieste, Italy
  • Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA
  • Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago
  • Warsaw University Observatory
  • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
  • Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741, Garching, Germany
  • Technical University of Denmark
  • Florida State University
  • University of Helsinki
  • Computational Cosmology Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA
  • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  • Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, ALMA Santiago Central Offices, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 763 0355, Santiago, Chile
  • African Institute for Mathematical Sciences
  • University of Ferrara
  • University of California at Santa Barbara
  • Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie, Université Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3, 53, rue des Martyrs, 38026, Grenoble Cedex, France
  • Gran Sasso Science Institute
  • National Radio Astronomy Observatory, PO Box O, Socorro, NM, 87801, USA
  • INFN, Sezione di Roma 1, Università di Roma Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Roma, Italy
  • Kazan Federal University, 18 Kremlyovskaya St., 420008, Kazan, Russia
  • Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS (UMR7095), 98bis Boulevard Arago, 75014, Paris, France
  • National University of Ireland, Galway
  • University of Turku
  • Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Astro Space Centre, 84/32 Profsoyuznaya st., GSP-7, 117997, Moscow, Russia
  • Haverford College Astronomy Department, 370 Lancaster Avenue, Haverford, Pennsylvania, USA
  • Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
  • HGSFP and University of Heidelberg, Theoretical Physics Department, Philosophenweg 16, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany
  • Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dana and David Dornsife College of Letter, Arts and Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 90089, USA
  • INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, Monte Porzio Catone, Italy
  • University of Tasmania
  • INFN, Sezione di Roma 2, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00185, Roma, Italy
  • Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Ave, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
  • University of La Laguna
  • Optical Science Laboratory, University College London, Gower Street, London, UK
  • University of British Columbia
  • Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnij Arkhyz, Zelenchukskiy region, 369167, Karachai-Cherkessian Republic, Russia
  • Space Research Institute (IKI), Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya Str, 84/32, 117997, Moscow, Russia
  • European Space Agency, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ, Noordwijk, The Netherlands
  • Université de Genève
  • University of Geneva
  • Tuorla Observatory
  • Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Université Paris-Sud 11 & CNRS, Bâtiment 210, 91405, Orsay, France
  • Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, CO, 80301, Boulder, USA
  • DSM/Irfu/SPP, CEA-Saclay, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France
  • Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT, UK
  • Centro de Estudios de Física del Cosmos de Aragón (CEFCA), Plaza San Juan, 1, planta 2, 44001, Teruel, Spain
  • Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria, 16, Milano, Italy
  • DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
  • Università di Roma Tor Vergata
  • University of Oviedo
  • University of California
  • INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, Padova, Italy
  • Agenzia Spaziale Italiana Science Data Center
  • Università Degli Studi di Padova
  • Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Bartycka 18, 00-716, Warsaw, Poland
  • INAF/IASF Bologna, via Gobetti , 101, Bologna, Italy
  • European Southern Observatory, ESO Vitacura, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago, Chile
  • Sorbonne Université-UPMC, UMR7095, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis Boulevard Arago, 75014, Paris, France
  • University of KwaZulu-Natal
  • European Space Agency, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ, Noordwijk, The Netherlands
  • Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, 31028, Toulouse Cedex 4, France
  • Princeton University
  • Haverford College
  • Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/Vía Láctea s/n, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
  • Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università degli Studi e-Campus, via Isimbardi 10, 22060, Novedrate (CO), Italy
  • Niels Bohr Institute
  • Dipartimento di Fisica, Università La Sapienza, P. le A. Moro 2, 00133, Roma, Italy
  • University of California at Berkeley

Abstract

Continuum spectra covering centimetre to submillimetre wavelengths are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, mainly active galactic nuclei, based on four-epoch Planck data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous ground-based radio observations between 1.1 and 37 GHz. The single-survey Planck data confirm that the flattest high-frequency radio spectral indices are close to zero, indicating that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum is much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The radio spectra peak at high frequencies and exhibit a variety of shapes. For a small set of low-z sources, we find a spectral upturn at high frequencies, indicating the presence of intrinsic cold dust. Variability can generally be approximated by achromatic variations, while sources with clear signatures of evolving shocks appear to be limited to the strongest outbursts.

Details

Original languageEnglish
Article numberA106
JournalAstronomy & Astrophysics
Volume596
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Research areas

  • galaxies: active, galaxies: general, radio continuum: galaxies

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