Physical and perceptual comparison of real and focused sound sources in a concert hall

Sebastià Amengual Gari, Jukka Pätynen, Tapio Lokki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


This article presents a physical and perceptual comparison of room acoustics between arrays of real loudspeakers and virtual loudspeakers implemented with Wave Field Synthesis in a concert hall. The physical comparison comprises time-frequency and spatiotemporal analyses of the spatial room impulse responses measured through the two reproduction methods. Perceptual
comparisons are based on formal listening tests performed both in-situ and in laboratory conditions, using anechoic classical music recordings as excitation signals. The results indicate that Wave Field Synthesis yields a slower build-up and a spatially more distributed direct sound than real loudspeakers. Perceptually, Wave Field Synthesis presents brighter sound and a wider and more enveloping spatial sound image, as well as higher preference in the studied concert hall.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1014-1025
JournalJournal of the Audio Engineering Society
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • wave field synthesis
  • room acoustics
  • Concert halls


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