Performance Evaluation of Cyclostationary-Based Cooperative Sensing Using Field Measurements

Sachin Chaudhari, Marko Kosunen, Semu Mäkinen, Jan Oksanen, Markus Laatta, Jaakko Ojaniemi, Visa Koivunen, Jussi Ryynänen, Mikko Valkama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


This paper focuses on evaluating the gains obtained through cooperative spectrum sensing in the real world while using cyclostationary-based mobile sensors. In cooperative sensing (CS), different secondary users (SUs) in a geographical neighborhood cooperate to detect the presence of a primary user (PU). Compared with single-user sensing, cooperation provides diversity gains in the face of multipath fading and shadowing. The effectiveness of CS is demonstrated by analyzing data acquired in two extensive field measurement campaigns. The first measurement campaign (MC-I) focuses on measurements at fixed locations, whereas the second measurement campaign (MC-II) focuses on a scenario where measurements are taken inside a moving car. These measurements are carried out for DVB-T channels in the Capital Region of Finland, which consists of urban and suburban environments. Hard decision rules such as or, and, and majority and a soft decision rule such as sum of cyclostationary test statistics (sum) are employed, and their detection performances are compared with a cyclostationary-based single-user detector. A performance parameter of relative increase in probability of detection (RIPD) is used to efficiently demonstrate the cooperation gain obtained relative to local sensing. It is shown that cooperation can significantly improve the performance of a sensor severely affected by fading and shadowing effects. Furthermore, it is shown that increasing the number of collaborating users beyond few users (five to eight) does not, in practice, bring significant improvement in terms of the expected RIPD. The performances of CS schemes evaluated from MC-I are also compared with the corresponding simulated CS results using empirical channel models and terrain data for the same experimental parameters. It is shown that the use of empirical or theoretical models may result in detection errors in practical conditions, and measurements should be used to improve the accuracy in such scenarios.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7084673
Pages (from-to)1982-1997
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Cognitive radios
  • Cooperative detection
  • Cyclostationary detectors
  • Field measurements
  • Mobile sensors

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