Penicillium expansum strain isolated from indoor building material was able to grow on gypsum board and emitted guttation droplets containing chaetoglobosins and communesins A, B and D

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@article{2087cbe119f4453eb0767d0e971f0d17,
title = "Penicillium expansum strain isolated from indoor building material was able to grow on gypsum board and emitted guttation droplets containing chaetoglobosins and communesins A, B and D",
abstract = "Aims Emission of toxic metabolites in guttation droplets of common indoor fungi is not well documented. The aims of this study were (i) to compare mycotoxins in biomass and guttation droplets from indoor fungi from a building following health complaints among occupants, (ii) to identify the most toxic strain and to test if mycotoxins in guttation liquids migrated trough air and (iii) to test if toxigenic Penicillium expansum strains grew on gypsum board. Methods and Results Biomass suspensions and guttation droplets from individual fungal colonies representing Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Penicillium, Stachybotrys and Paecilomyces were screened toxic to mammalian cells. The most toxic strain, RcP61 (CBS 145620), was identified as Pen. expansum Link by sequence analysis of the ITS region and a calmodulin gene fragment, and confirmed by the Westerdijk Institute based on ITS and beta-tubulin sequences. The strain was isolated from a cork liner, was able to grow on gypsum board and to produce toxic substances in biomass extracts and guttation droplets inhibiting proliferation of somatic cells (PK-15, MNA, FL) in up to 20 000-fold dilutions. Toxic compounds in biomass extracts and/or guttation droplets were determined by HPLC and LC-MS. Strain RcP61 produced communesins A, B and D, and chaetoglobosins in guttation droplets (the liquid emitted from them) and biomass extracts. The toxins of the guttation droplets migrated c. 1 cm through air and condensed on a cool surface. Conclusions The mycotoxin-containing guttation liquids emitted by Pen. expansum grown on laboratory medium exhibited airborne migration and were >100 times more toxic in bioassays than guttation droplets produced by indoor isolates of the genera Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Stachybotrys and Paecilomyces. Significance and Impact of the Study Toxic exudates produced by Pen. expansum containing communesins A, B and D, and chaetoglobosins were transferable by air. This may represent a novel mechanism of mycotoxin dispersal in indoor environment.",
keywords = "Cytotoxicity, fungal contamination, mycotoxins, Penicillium, toxins, HUMAN HEALTH, HOUSE-DUST, TOXICITY, MOLD, TEMPERATURE, SPERMATOZOA, ALLERGY, PATULIN, LINK, SOIL",
author = "Salo, {M. J.} and T. Marik and R. Mikkola and Andersson, {M. A.} and L. Kredics and H. Salonen and J. Kurnitski",
year = "2019",
month = "10",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/jam.14369",
language = "English",
volume = "127",
pages = "1135--1147",
journal = "Journal of Applied Microbiology",
issn = "1364-5072",
publisher = "Wiley",
number = "4",

}

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Penicillium expansum strain isolated from indoor building material was able to grow on gypsum board and emitted guttation droplets containing chaetoglobosins and communesins A, B and D

AU - Salo, M. J.

AU - Marik, T.

AU - Mikkola, R.

AU - Andersson, M. A.

AU - Kredics, L.

AU - Salonen, H.

AU - Kurnitski, J.

PY - 2019/10/1

Y1 - 2019/10/1

N2 - Aims Emission of toxic metabolites in guttation droplets of common indoor fungi is not well documented. The aims of this study were (i) to compare mycotoxins in biomass and guttation droplets from indoor fungi from a building following health complaints among occupants, (ii) to identify the most toxic strain and to test if mycotoxins in guttation liquids migrated trough air and (iii) to test if toxigenic Penicillium expansum strains grew on gypsum board. Methods and Results Biomass suspensions and guttation droplets from individual fungal colonies representing Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Penicillium, Stachybotrys and Paecilomyces were screened toxic to mammalian cells. The most toxic strain, RcP61 (CBS 145620), was identified as Pen. expansum Link by sequence analysis of the ITS region and a calmodulin gene fragment, and confirmed by the Westerdijk Institute based on ITS and beta-tubulin sequences. The strain was isolated from a cork liner, was able to grow on gypsum board and to produce toxic substances in biomass extracts and guttation droplets inhibiting proliferation of somatic cells (PK-15, MNA, FL) in up to 20 000-fold dilutions. Toxic compounds in biomass extracts and/or guttation droplets were determined by HPLC and LC-MS. Strain RcP61 produced communesins A, B and D, and chaetoglobosins in guttation droplets (the liquid emitted from them) and biomass extracts. The toxins of the guttation droplets migrated c. 1 cm through air and condensed on a cool surface. Conclusions The mycotoxin-containing guttation liquids emitted by Pen. expansum grown on laboratory medium exhibited airborne migration and were >100 times more toxic in bioassays than guttation droplets produced by indoor isolates of the genera Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Stachybotrys and Paecilomyces. Significance and Impact of the Study Toxic exudates produced by Pen. expansum containing communesins A, B and D, and chaetoglobosins were transferable by air. This may represent a novel mechanism of mycotoxin dispersal in indoor environment.

AB - Aims Emission of toxic metabolites in guttation droplets of common indoor fungi is not well documented. The aims of this study were (i) to compare mycotoxins in biomass and guttation droplets from indoor fungi from a building following health complaints among occupants, (ii) to identify the most toxic strain and to test if mycotoxins in guttation liquids migrated trough air and (iii) to test if toxigenic Penicillium expansum strains grew on gypsum board. Methods and Results Biomass suspensions and guttation droplets from individual fungal colonies representing Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Penicillium, Stachybotrys and Paecilomyces were screened toxic to mammalian cells. The most toxic strain, RcP61 (CBS 145620), was identified as Pen. expansum Link by sequence analysis of the ITS region and a calmodulin gene fragment, and confirmed by the Westerdijk Institute based on ITS and beta-tubulin sequences. The strain was isolated from a cork liner, was able to grow on gypsum board and to produce toxic substances in biomass extracts and guttation droplets inhibiting proliferation of somatic cells (PK-15, MNA, FL) in up to 20 000-fold dilutions. Toxic compounds in biomass extracts and/or guttation droplets were determined by HPLC and LC-MS. Strain RcP61 produced communesins A, B and D, and chaetoglobosins in guttation droplets (the liquid emitted from them) and biomass extracts. The toxins of the guttation droplets migrated c. 1 cm through air and condensed on a cool surface. Conclusions The mycotoxin-containing guttation liquids emitted by Pen. expansum grown on laboratory medium exhibited airborne migration and were >100 times more toxic in bioassays than guttation droplets produced by indoor isolates of the genera Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Stachybotrys and Paecilomyces. Significance and Impact of the Study Toxic exudates produced by Pen. expansum containing communesins A, B and D, and chaetoglobosins were transferable by air. This may represent a novel mechanism of mycotoxin dispersal in indoor environment.

KW - Cytotoxicity

KW - fungal contamination

KW - mycotoxins

KW - Penicillium

KW - toxins

KW - HUMAN HEALTH

KW - HOUSE-DUST

KW - TOXICITY

KW - MOLD

KW - TEMPERATURE

KW - SPERMATOZOA

KW - ALLERGY

KW - PATULIN

KW - LINK

KW - SOIL

U2 - 10.1111/jam.14369

DO - 10.1111/jam.14369

M3 - Article

VL - 127

SP - 1135

EP - 1147

JO - Journal of Applied Microbiology

JF - Journal of Applied Microbiology

SN - 1364-5072

IS - 4

ER -

ID: 36039874