Particle Creation: Schwinger + Unruh + Hawking

G. E. Volovik*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
38 Downloads (Pure)


We discuss the interconnection between the Schwinger pair creation in electric field, Hawking radiation and particle creation in the Unruh effect. All three processes can be described in terms of the entropy and temperature. These thermodynamic like processes can be combined. We consider the combined process of creation of charged and electrically neutral particles in the electric field, which combine the Schwinger and Unruh effects. We also consider the creation of the charged black and white holes in electric field, which combines the Schwinger effect and the black hole entropy. The combined processes obey the sum rules for the entropy and for the inverse temperature. Some contributions to the entropy and to the temperature are negative, which reflects the quantum entanglement between the created objects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)595-599
Number of pages5
JournalJETP Letters
Issue number9
Early online date25 Oct 2022
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed




Dive into the research topics of 'Particle Creation: Schwinger + Unruh + Hawking'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this