Partially RepRapable automated open source bag valve mask-based ventilator

Aliaksei Petsiuk, Nagendra G. Tanikella, Samantha Dertinger, Adam Pringle, Shane Oberloier, Joshua M. Pearce*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)
193 Downloads (Pure)


This study describes the development of a simple and easy-to-build portable automated bag valve mask (BVM) compression system, which, during acute shortages and supply chain disruptions can serve as a temporary emergency ventilator. The resuscitation system is based on the Arduino controller with a real-time operating system installed on a largely RepRap 3-D printable parametric component-based structure. The cost of the materials for the system is under $170, which makes it affordable for replication by makers around the world. The device provides a controlled breathing mode with tidal volumes from 100 to 800 mL, breathing rates from 5 to 40 breaths/minute, and inspiratory-to-expiratory ratio from 1:1 to 1:4. The system is designed for reliability and scalability of measurement circuits through the use of the serial peripheral interface and has the ability to connect additional hardware due to the object-oriented algorithmic approach. Experimental results after testing on an artificial lung for peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), respiratory rate (RR), positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), tidal volume, proximal pressure, and lung pressure demonstrate repeatability and accuracy exceeding human capabilities in BVM-based manual ventilation. Future work is necessary to further develop and test the system to make it acceptable for deployment outside of emergencies such as with COVID-19 pandemic in clinical environments, however, the nature of the design is such that desired features are relatively easy to add using protocols and parametric design files provided.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere00131
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • 3-D printing
  • Coronavirus
  • Coronavirus pandemic
  • COVID-19
  • Embedded systems
  • Influenza pandemic
  • Medical hardware
  • Open hardware
  • Open source
  • Open source medical hardware
  • Pandemic
  • Pandemic ventilator
  • Real-time operating system
  • RepRap
  • Single-limb
  • Ventilation
  • Ventilator


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