Partially Reduced Graphene Oxide Modified Tetrahedral Amorphous Carbon Thin-Film Electrodes as a Platform for Nanomolar Detection of Dopamine

Niklas Wester, Sami Sainio, Tommi Palomäki, Dennis Nordlund, Vivek Singh, Leena-Sisko Johansson, Jari Koskinen, Tomi Laurila

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this study we present for the first time tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-
C) a partially reduced graphene oxide (PRGO) hybrid electrode nanomaterial platform for electrochemical sensing of dopamine (DA). Graphene oxide was synthesized with the modified Hummer’s method. Before modification of ta-C by drop casting, partial reduction of the GO was carried out to improve electrochemical properties and adhesion to the ta-C thin film. A facile nitric acid treatment that slightly reoxidized the surface and modified the surface chemistry was subsequently performed to further improve the electrochemical
properties of the electrodes. The largest relative increase was seen in carboxyl groups. The HNO3 treatment increased the sensitivity toward DA and AA and resulted in a cathodic shift in the oxidation of AA. The fabricated hybrid electrodes were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and
electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Compared to the plain ta-C electrode the hybrid electrode was shown to exhibit superior sensitivity and selectivity toward DA in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA), enabling simultaneous sensing of AA and DA close to the physiological concentrations by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Two linear
ranges of 0−1 μM and 1−100 μM and a detection limit (S/N = 3.3) of 2.6 nM for DA were determined by means of cyclic voltammetry. Hence, the current work provides a fully CMOS-compatible carbon based hybrid nanomaterial that shows potential for in vivo measurements of DA.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8153–8164
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry C
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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