Para-images: Cultural ideas and technical apparatuses beyond the pictorial surfaces

    Research output: ThesisMaster's thesis


    Contemplating the ever-complex relationship between images and reality, the thesis proposes a new approach to understanding images in contemporary visual culture: para-images. The thesis employs Vilém Flusser’s notion of counter vision to examine cultural ideas and technical apparatuses operating beyond the pictorial surfaces of seven images of water splashes. In the process, the thesis identifies agential realism and twenty-first-century media as two useful frameworks in formulating the triangular relationship among humans, images and the world. Attempting to answer the question ‘What is left of an image if the pictorial surface is scratched away?’, the thesis uncovers the often neglected ideological and technical infrastructures that make images possible in the first place. Situating images and machines at the same level of humans as entities with their own agencies, the image theory this thesis establishes concerns the entanglement of humans, machines, apparatuses, images and the world. In short, an image is the world, the world is an image.
    Original languageEnglish
    QualificationMaster's degree
    Awarding Institution
    • Aalto University
    • El Baroni, Bassam, Supervising Professor
    • Rubinstein, Daniel, Thesis Advisor, External person
    Publication statusPublished - 2019
    MoE publication typeG2 Master's thesis, polytechnic Master's thesis


    • digital image
    • agential realism
    • image theory
    • photographic art
    • photography research
    • technical images
    • computer graphics
    • CGI
    • computer vision
    • Artistic reseaerch

    Field of art

    • Contemporary art


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