Overview of Powertrain Electrification and Future Scenarios for Non-Road Mobile Machinery

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleScientificpeer-review


  • Antti Lajunen
  • Panu Sainio
  • Lasse Laurila
  • Jenni Pippuri-Mäkeläinen
  • Kari Tammi

Research units

  • VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
  • Lappeenranta University of Technology


Powertrain electrification continues to be a growing trend in vehicular applications. Electric powertrains have numerous advantages over traditional mechanical and hydraulic powertrains but there are still important challenges to overcome for long-term commercial success. This research presents a technological assessment of present and future developments of powertrain electrification in non-road mobile machinery (NRMM). The challenges and opportunities of NRMM electrification are described in detail. The trends and drivers related to technological development such as regulations, policies and market development are analyzed, and technology enablers are highlighted. Future scenarios are formulated based on the prevailing trends and drivers, development of key components, scientific literature and status of the non-road mobile machinery industry. Some recommendations are also given in relation to the development of hybrid and electric powertrains for NRMM. The key findings of this research indicate that the electrification of NRMM is slowly started and the progress is demonstrated by hybridization of some specific, successful mobile machines. In short-term, high component and technology development costs remain the main barrier for higher adoption of electric and hybrid powertrains. In the long-term scenario, many NRMM can operate autonomously and powertrain electrification has become mainstream technology.


Original languageEnglish
Article number1184
Number of pages22
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2018
MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal

    Research areas

  • powertrain electrification, non-road mobile machinery, hybrid powertrain, technology assessment, future forecasting

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