Conditions to obtain micro-phase separated morphologies in polymer-surfactant systems involving hydrogen bonds have been investigated using poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (P4VP) and surfactants capable of forming hydrogen bonds of different strength with the basic nitrogen of P4VP. Depending on the tail length, the hydrogen bonding strength, the amount of surfactant and the temperature, four different regimes have been identified: I. Micro-phase separated state, II. Homogeneous state exhibiting a distinct Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) peak, III. Homogeneous state without a SAXS peak and, IV. Macro-phase separated state. Time-resolved SAXS / W(ide) A(angle) X(ray) S(cattering) / D(ifferential) S(canning) C(alorimetry) as well as rheological measurements are used to identify the different regimes. A simplified model description together with preliminary computer simulation results are presented.