Optimum Operation of Battery Storage System in Frequency Containment Reserves Markets

Poria Astero*, Corentin Evens

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

51 Citations (Scopus)


This paper focuses on the bidding strategy and online control methodology of battery storage systems (BSS) to participate in the frequency containment reserve (FCR) market. The new technical requirements for the FCR markets in the Nordic power system does not allow controlling the BSS in other ways than on the basis of frequency. Therefore, control mechanisms such as recovering the state of charge (SOC) whenever the power system frequency is in its acceptable (dead-band) range cannot be used. In this regard, this paper proposes and compares different control mechanisms to recover the SOC that are in line with the new regulation and maximizes the BSS profit using the lifetime model of the BSS. In order to compare different control mechanisms, this paper investigates the behaviour of a large BSS unit installed in the Helsinki area by simulating the proposed strategies over measured frequency and market data from 2014 till 2019.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9103134
Pages (from-to)4906-4915
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Battery storage system
  • flexibility market frequency containment reserves
  • frequency regulation
  • planning and control


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