Optimizing residential heating and energy storage flexibility for frequency reserves

Olli Kilkki*, Ilkka Seilonen, Kai Zenger, Valeriy Vyatkin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


The increase in intermittent renewable generation motivates participation of also the electricity consumers in maintaining the production–consumption balance of the electrical grid. This paper proposes a distributed price-based optimization scheme for involving a population of consumers in day-ahead procurement of electricity and frequency containment reserves. Energy storage charging and heating of residential houses are planned before the operating day, while taking into account uncertainties in the day-ahead electricity and reserves markets, weather conditions, and realized frequency. The proposed approach is formulated as stochastic quadratic programming problems and coordinated using a parallelized formulation of the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Chance constraints for the storage state of charge variations under uncertain reserve activation are formulated as second-order cone constraints. The numerical results illustrate the potential benefits of including consumers in the optimization of reserves.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)540-549
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Demand response
  • Energy storage
  • Optimization
  • Reserves

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