The increase in intermittent renewable generation motivates participation of also the electricity consumers in maintaining the production–consumption balance of the electrical grid. This paper proposes a distributed price-based optimization scheme for involving a population of consumers in day-ahead procurement of electricity and frequency containment reserves. Energy storage charging and heating of residential houses are planned before the operating day, while taking into account uncertainties in the day-ahead electricity and reserves markets, weather conditions, and realized frequency. The proposed approach is formulated as stochastic quadratic programming problems and coordinated using a parallelized formulation of the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Chance constraints for the storage state of charge variations under uncertain reserve activation are formulated as second-order cone constraints. The numerical results illustrate the potential benefits of including consumers in the optimization of reserves.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Sep 2018|
|MoE publication type||A1 Journal article-refereed|
- Demand response
- Energy storage