Optimization of Virtual Loudspeakers for Spatial Room Acoustics Reproduction with Headphones

Otto Puomio, Jukka Pätynen, Tapio Lokki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
148 Downloads (Pure)


The use of headphones in reproducing spatial sound is becoming more and more popular. For instance, virtual reality applications often use head-tracking to keep the binaurally reproduced auditory environment stable and to improve externalization. Here, we study one spatial sound reproduction method over headphones, in particular the positioning of the virtual loudspeakers. The paper presents an algorithm that optimizes the positioning of virtual reproduction loudspeakers to reduce the computational cost in head-tracked real-time rendering. The listening test results suggest that listeners could discriminate the optimized loudspeaker arrays for renderings that reproduced a relatively simple acoustic conditions, but optimized array was not significantly different from equally spaced array for a reproduction of a more complex case. Moreover, the optimization seems to change the perceived openness and timbre, according to the verbal feedback of the test subjects
Original languageEnglish
Article number1282
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalApplied Sciences
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 9 Dec 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • spatial audio
  • spatial sound reproduction
  • SDM
  • headphone reproduction
  • optimisation


Dive into the research topics of 'Optimization of Virtual Loudspeakers for Spatial Room Acoustics Reproduction with Headphones'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this