Optimisation of passenger ship structures in concept design stage

Joni Raikunen*, Eero Avi, Heikki Remes, Jani Romanoff, Ingrit Lillemäe-Avi, Ari Niemelä

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
132 Downloads (Pure)


This paper presents an optimization method for concept design state of passenger ship with focus on utilisation of efficient Finite Element Modelling, evolutionary optimisation algorithm and indirect constraint relaxation. The response is analysed using 3D coarse mesh global finite element (FE) model, where stiffened panels are modelled using equivalent single layer (ESL) elements and the primary stiffeners are modelled with offset beam elements. The simplifications on stiffened panels and beams enable exploration of design space without changing the FE-mesh. The strength is defined based on classification society rules. Local stress peaks are allowed to exceed the rule-based strength limits, i.e. stress constraints are relaxed indirectly. Instead of increasing the allowed stress levels, the amount of material exceeding strength criteria is utilised. Optimization is based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm with objective to reduce steel weight. The results show that stress relaxation has significant effect on the obtained total mass.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)320-334
Number of pages15
JournalShips and Offshore Structures
Issue numbersup1
Early online date19 Mar 2019
Publication statusPublished - 3 Oct 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Optimisation
  • equivalent single layer (ESL) theory
  • equivalent element
  • particle swarm optimisation
  • global finite element model
  • passenger ship
  • constraint relaxation


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