- South Valley University
- Budapest University of Technology and Economics
- Aswan University
Recently, the penetration of photovoltaic (PV) units and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) has been quickly increased worldwide. Due to the intermittent nature of PV and the stochastic nature of PEVs, several operation problems can be noticed in distribution systems, including excessive energy losses and voltage violations. In this paper, an optimization-based algorithm is proposed to accurately determine the optimal locations and capacities of multiple PV units in the presence of PEVs to minimize energy losses while considering various system constraints. The proposed algorithm considers the uncertainty of PV and loads, and the stochastic nature of PEVs. Furthermore, the operational constraints of PEVs are incorporated in the optimization model: 1) arrival and departure times, 2) initial state of charge (SOC), 3) minimum preset state of charge by the owner, and 4) the time-of-use electricity tariff, and 5) different charging control schemes. The optimal PV planning model is formulated as a two-layer optimization problem that ensures an optimal PV allocation while optimizing PEV charging simultaneously. A two-layer metaheuristic method is developed to solve the optimization model considering annual datasets of the studied distribution systems. The results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed algorithm.
- Distribution systems, Photovoltaic, Plug-in Electric Vehicle, Energy losses, Optimal allocation