On the Role of Ferroalloys in Steelmaking

Lauri Holappa, Seppo Louhenkilpi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Ferroalloys are added in steel to improve properties like tensile strength, ductility, fatigue strength and corrosion resistance. Additionally, there can be several other tasks for ferroalloys like in refining, deoxidation, control of non-metallic inclusions and precipitates. The short history of ferroalloys is introduced parallel to the development of different steel types. Then the latest innovations like development of new low- and high-alloyed (HSLA and stainless) steels are discussed. Influences of ferroalloys and special requirements in different stages in steelmaking process from melting to casting are considered. The eventual influence of oxide impurities in ferroalloys to steel cleanliness was examined. It was observed that concerning primary alloying in early stage of ladle treatments the influence of ferroalloys is hardly decisive. Trimming additions close to casting start are more critical but on the other hand the additions are quite small and thus do not markedly influence the steel composition. However, the possible risk of ending up macro-inclusions to solidifying steel should be considered. Finally, some novel potential developments of ferroalloys as master alloys carrying nanoparticles are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationINFACON XIII, June 9-13, 2013, Kazakhstan, Almaty, June 9-13, 2013
PublisherP. Dipner, Karaganda, Kazakhstan
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9965729344, 9789965729348
Publication statusPublished - 2013
MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
EventInternational Ferroalloys Congress - Almaty, Kazakhstan
Duration: 9 Jun 201312 Jun 2013
Conference number: 13


ConferenceInternational Ferroalloys Congress
Abbreviated titleINFACON


  • ferroalloys production
  • influence on steel properties
  • nanoparticles
  • oxide inclusions
  • precipitates


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