On-surface synthesis of disilabenzene-bridged covalent organic frameworks

Kewei Sun, Orlando J. Silveira, Yujing Ma, Yuri Hasegawa, Michio Matsumoto, Satoshi Kera, Ondřej Krejčí, Adam S. Foster*, Shigeki Kawai*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)
39 Downloads (Pure)


Substituting carbon with silicon in organic molecules and materials has long been an attractive way to modify their electronic structure and properties. Silicon-doped graphene-based materials are known to exhibit exotic properties, yet conjugated organic materials with atomically precise Si substitution have remained difficult to prepare. Here we present the on-surface synthesis of one- and two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks whose backbones contain 1,4-disilabenzene (C4Si2) linkers. Silicon atoms were first deposited on a Au(111) surface, forming a AuSix film on annealing. The subsequent deposition and annealing of a bromo-substituted polyaromatic hydrocarbon precursor (triphenylene or pyrene) on this surface led to the formation of the C4Si2-bridged networks, which were characterized by a combination of high-resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy supported by density functional theory calculations. Each Si in a hexagonal C4Si2 ring was found to be covalently linked to one terminal Br atom. For the linear structure obtained with the pyrene-based precursor, the C4Si2 rings were converted into C4Si pentagonal siloles by further annealing.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)136-142
Number of pages7
JournalNature Chemistry
Issue number1
Early online date7 Nov 2022
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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