Observers for sensorless synchronous motor drives: framework for design and analysis

Marko Hinkkanen, Seppo E. Saarakkala, Hafiz Asad Ali Awan, Eemeli Mölsä, Toni Tuovinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)
391 Downloads (Pure)


This paper deals with the speed and position estimation for synchronous reluctance motors (SyRMs) and interior permanent-magnet synchronous motors (IPMs). A unified design and analysis framework for a class of back-electromotive-force (back-EMF)-based observers is developed and the links between apparently different estimation methods are brought out. State observers equipped with a speed-adaptation law are shown to be mathematically equivalent to voltage-model-based flux observers equipped with a position-tracking loop. The error signal driving the adaptation law or the tracking loop is presented in a generalized form. Using the framework, a stabilizing gain design is reviewed and detailed design guidelines are given. Selected observer designs are experimentally evaluated using a 6.7-kW SyRM drive and a 2.2-kW IPM drive.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6090-6100
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 23 Jul 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • observers
  • rotors
  • stators
  • synchronous motors
  • mathematical model
  • estimation error


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