Novel recycling process for lead-acid battery paste without SO2 generation - Reaction mechanism and industrial pilot campaign

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Research units

  • Central South University
  • Hetao College


This study proposes an innovative and environment-friendly method for recycling spent lead-acid batteries without SO2 generation. Iron-containing waste was employed as a sulfur-fixing agent to retain sulfur as ferrous matte, which eliminated the generation and emissions of gaseous SO2. This work investigated the thermodynamic and experimental feasibility and conversion mechanism of the method, and evaluated its industrial applicability. A bench-scale test showed direct recoveries of 93.5% and 97.7% in crude lead and ferrous matte for lead and sulfur, respectively. The phase transformation mechanism study indicated that metallic lead from the lead paste was extracted mainly through the sequence of PbSO4 →C/CO PbS →Fe3O4 PbO →C/CO Pb. Sulfur in PbSO4 was thus first transferred to PbS and finally fixed as FeS. An industrial-scale pilot campaign was also conducted to confirm the feasibility and reliability of the new process.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)162-171
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Publication statusPublished - 20 Apr 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Research areas

  • Efficient lead extraction, Industrial application evaluation, Reaction mechanism, Reductive sulfur-fixing smelting, SO emission

ID: 32144103