This research examines the effect of normativity on difficulties experienced with English oral production in Finland and Japan. Moyer’s classification of factors influencing second language acquisition (2004) as well as language ideology theory (Garrett, 2010; Milroy, 2007) are used as a framework for an analysis of 56 semi-structured interviews with Finnish and Japanese adult learners of intermediate level English. Self-reported experiences related to speaking English were annotated with appropriate codes and analyzed using content analysis. The results show that normativity related to the English language explains many of the difficulties learners experience with speaking English, and that this normativity is essentially connected to social factors as well as instruction and input factors in language learning.
- adult second language learning
- oral proficiency
- language ideologies